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    Available online at
    Original Research
    Association of clinical outcomes in metastatic breast cancer patients with circulating tumour cell and circulating cell-free DNA
    Zhong Ye a,1, Chun Wang a,1, Shaogui Wan b,1, Zhaomei Mu c, Zhenchao Zhang a, Maysa M. Abu-Khalaf a, Frederick M. Fellin a, Daniel P. Silver a, Manish Neupane a, Rebecca J. Jaslow a,
    Saveri Bhattacharya a, Theodore N. Tsangaris a, Inna Chervoneva d, Adam Berger e, Laura Austin a, Juan P. Palazzo f, Ronald E. Myers a, Neha Pancholy a, Darayus Toorkey a, Kaelan Yao a, Max Krall a, Xiuling Li g, Xiaobing Chen h, Xiuhong Fu i, Jinliang Xing j, Lifang Hou k, Qiang Wei l, Bingshan Li l, Massimo Cristofanilli c,**, Hushan Yang a,*
    a Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    b Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical College, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
    c Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA d Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    e Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    f Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    g Department of Gastroenterology, People’s Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China
    h Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China i Center for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics, Central Hospital of Luohe, Luohe, Henan 462300, China
    j Experimental Teaching Center, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032, China
    k Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    l Center for Human Genetics Research, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    E-mail addresses: [email protected] (M. Cristofanilli), [email protected] (H. Yang). 1 Zhong Ye, Chun Wang, and Shaogui Wan, contributed equally to ecology study.
    Abstract Background: Both circulating tumour cell (CTC) and total circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) predict cancer patient prognosis. However, no study has explored the prog-nostic value of the combined use of CTC and ccfDNA. We aimed to investigate individual and joint effects of CTC and ccfDNA on clinical outcomes of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) pa-tients.