br Cancer prevention and control plans
Cancer prevention and control plans and strategies are currently weak in Nigeria; only a few population-based cancer registries exist and cancer reporting system is poorly structured . The most cost-effective breast cancer control strategy remains early detection through screening; this Irinotecan has been observed to be one of the keys to meeting
Available online 01 February 2019
global health and development goals, including the Sustainable De-velopment Goals (SDGs) .
In developed countries, cancer burden has been drastically reduced through well-coordinated screening programmes. In fact, Smith et al. recommended that every at risk woman in America must undergo an-nual breast cancer screening through mammography . Although mammography has proven to be a reliable and valid breast cancer screening method, awareness about this tool, its accessibility and af-fordability to women has been low in resource-poor countries such as Nigeria where health spending is predominantly through out-of-pocket expenditure. Thus, other cost-effective screening methods such as Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) come handy in such countries. Studies have shown that 40% of diag-nosed breast cancers are detected through BSE, thus validating the usefulness of the procedure in breast cancer screening . Indeed, studies have been conducted in Nigeria on breast cancer, yet the burden of the disease has remained monumental as cases are often detected late, thus warranting increased researcher efforts towards its prevention and control. Moreover, most of the previous studies on breast cancer have been institutional-based, often focusing on educated and professional women. Information from such studies may not reflect the true breast cancer situation in the Nigerian communities. Studies such as the current one become imperative. The study sought to assess awareness of women in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area (LGA), their knowledge on breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices. The study aimed to provide useful information to guide policy makers in designing implementable breast cancer prevention program in Nigeria.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Description of study area
The study was conducted in Ogbomoso South LGA, Oyo State, Nigeria which has ten electoral wards and a projectected population size of 118,980 as of 2012 . The predominant religions include Christianity, Islam and Traditional religion. Most inhabitants are farmers but civil servants and traders also constitute a large proportion of the people. Yoruba is the pre-ponderant ethnic group but people from Igbo and Hausa extractions are also living in various communities of the LGA.
The study employed cross-sectional design.
2.1.2. Study participants and sampling
The sample size was calculated using the Leslie Kish formula for esti-mating single proportion . Reviewing the results of a similar study in Nigeria , authors assumed that 18% of our study participants would have been practising regular BSE. A standard relative deviate of 1.96 and a precision of 5% were used. A 10% non-response rate was envisaged among study participants and correction for this was made. Also, correction for possible cluster effect was made by multiplying the estimated sample size by 1.3; thus, the minimum sample size was 328. Study participants were recruited using multi-stage sampling method over a period of one month (June 2018). Firstly, three out of the ten electoral wards in Ogbomoso South LGA were selected using simple random sampling method (Balloting); the selected electoral wards included Arowomole, Ijeru I and Ijeru II respectively. Secondly, two communities in the selected electoral wards were chosen using simple random method (Balloting). Allocation of respondents was proportional to the population sizes of the selected communities as obtained from the National Population Census office of the LGA. Next, simple random method (Balloting) was employed to pick two streets from each of the selected communities. Systematic sampling technique was used to select households with eligible respondents from each of the two streets selected; sampling interval was calculated by dividing Journal of Cancer Policy 20 (2019) 100179
our estimated sample size by the number of respondents that have been allotted to a community. The first household in a street was selected using simple random method (balloting); in houses with more than one households, one was selected using simple random method (balloting).
Women who were at least 18 years of age and who gave their written consents were recruited to participate in the study.